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Phil Sponenberg (left) and Jeannette Beranger (right), American Livestock Breeds Conservancy
Scientists at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center bred the Beltsville Small White (left) in response to consumer complaints that pre-1930s turkeys like the Narragansett (right) were too big and the brown feathers left dark spots on the skin. Most turkeys before 1934 weighed on average 14 pounds as hens and 33 pounds as toms. The Beltsville Small White turkeys weighed on average 9 and 15 pounds.